The components of Operant Conditioning are Reinforcement and Punishment. There is positive and negative reinforcement, as well as positive and negative punishment. Positive reinforcing, such as praising or rewarding, strengthens a certain behavior, while negative reinforcing involves the removal of an outcome after the display of a certain behavior.
The schema theory was one of the leading cognitivist learning theories and was introduced by Bartlett in 1932 and further developed in the ’70s by Richard Anderson. Bartlett advanced this concept to provide a basis for a temporal alternative to traditional spatial storage theories of memory, since schema theory describes the way knowledge is acquired, processed and cerebrally organized.
The Gestalt Theory of the psychology of learning states that every stimulus in learning is perceived by humans in its most simple form, also known as the Law of Simplicity. Gestalt Theory provided the 20th-century foundations for the modern study of perception and emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than its parts in isolation. [Read more…]
Connectionism theory is based on the principle of active learning and is the result of the work of the American psychologist Edward Thorndike. This work led to Thorndike’s Laws. According to these Laws, learning is achieved when an individual is able to form associations between a particular stimulus and a response. The three main laws are the Law of Readiness, the Law of Exercise, and the Law of Effect. [Read more…]
Classical conditioning is a learned reflex or response that is evoked through a stimulus. Ideas of Classical Conditioning originated from old philosophical theories, but the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was the first to define Classical Conditioning. [Read more…]
Innovation and research are at the heart of Online Learning. Every year new eLearning methodologies and technologies come to light. As such, choosing the best Instructional Design model for your course design can be a challenge. In this UTO Training session on Instructional Design, we examine eight tips to help you select the ideal Instructional Design approach for your next lesson or course. [Read more…]
Over a series of ten-minute learning sessions, we will discuss the history of instructional design, its models, and theories, along with its uses. [Read more…]